【.NET Core项目实战-统一认证平台】第二章网关篇-重构Ocelot来满足需求

【.NET Core项目实战-统一认证平台】开篇及目录索引

这篇文章,我们将从Ocelot的中间件源码分析,目前Ocelot已经实现那些功能,还有那些功能在我们实际项目中暂时还未实现,如果我们要使用这些功能,应该如何改造等方面来说明。

一、Ocelot源码解读

在使用一个组件前,最好我们要了解其中的一些原理,否则在使用过程中遇到问题,也无从下手,今天我带着大家一起来解读下Ocelot源码,并梳理出具体实现的原理和流程,便于我们根据需求扩展应用。
Ocelot源码地址[https://github.com/ThreeMammals/Ocelot],
Ocelot文档地址[https://ocelot.readthedocs.io/en/latest/]

查看.NETCORE相关中间件源码,我们优先找到入口方法,比如Ocelot中间件使用的是app.UseOcelot(),我们直接搜索UserOcelot,我们会找到OcelotMiddlewareExtensions方法,里面是Ocelot中间件实际运行的方式和流程。

然后继续顺藤摸瓜,查看详细的实现,我们会发现如下代码

public static async Task<IApplicationBuilder> UseOcelot(this IApplicationBuilder builder, OcelotPipelineConfiguration pipelineConfiguration)
        {   
            //创建配置信息
            var configuration = await CreateConfiguration(builder);
            //监听配置信息
            ConfigureDiagnosticListener(builder);
            //创建执行管道
            return CreateOcelotPipeline(builder, pipelineConfiguration);
        }

然后我们继续跟踪到创建管道方法,可以发现Ocelot的执行流程已经被找到,现在问题变的简单了,直接查看

private static IApplicationBuilder CreateOcelotPipeline(IApplicationBuilder builder, OcelotPipelineConfiguration pipelineConfiguration)
{
    var pipelineBuilder = new OcelotPipelineBuilder(builder.ApplicationServices);
    //详细创建的管道顺序在此方法
    pipelineBuilder.BuildOcelotPipeline(pipelineConfiguration);

    var firstDelegate = pipelineBuilder.Build();

    /*
            inject first delegate into first piece of asp.net middleware..maybe not like this
            then because we are updating the http context in ocelot it comes out correct for
            rest of asp.net..
            */

    builder.Properties["analysis.NextMiddlewareName"] = "TransitionToOcelotMiddleware";

    builder.Use(async (context, task) =>
                {
                    var downstreamContext = new DownstreamContext(context);
                    await firstDelegate.Invoke(downstreamContext);
                });

    return builder;
}

管道创建流程及实现,会不会感觉到摸到大动脉了,核心的功能及原理基本找到了,那以后动手术也就可以避开一些坑了,我们可以对着这个执行顺序,再查看详细的源码,按照这个执行顺序查看源码,您就会发现整个思路非常清晰,每一步的实现一目了然。为了更直观的介绍源码的解读方式,这里我们就拿我们后续要操刀的中间件来讲解下中间件的具体实现。

public static class OcelotPipelineExtensions
    {
        public static OcelotRequestDelegate BuildOcelotPipeline(this IOcelotPipelineBuilder builder,
            OcelotPipelineConfiguration pipelineConfiguration)
        {
            // This is registered to catch any global exceptions that are not handled
            // It also sets the Request Id if anything is set globally
            builder.UseExceptionHandlerMiddleware();

            // If the request is for websockets upgrade we fork into a different pipeline
            builder.MapWhen(context => context.HttpContext.WebSockets.IsWebSocketRequest,
                app =>
                {
                    app.UseDownstreamRouteFinderMiddleware();
                    app.UseDownstreamRequestInitialiser();
                    app.UseLoadBalancingMiddleware();
                    app.UseDownstreamUrlCreatorMiddleware();
                    app.UseWebSocketsProxyMiddleware();
                });

            // Allow the user to respond with absolutely anything they want.
            builder.UseIfNotNull(pipelineConfiguration.PreErrorResponderMiddleware);

            // This is registered first so it can catch any errors and issue an appropriate response
            builder.UseResponderMiddleware();

            // Then we get the downstream route information
            builder.UseDownstreamRouteFinderMiddleware();

            // This security module, IP whitelist blacklist, extended security mechanism
            builder.UseSecurityMiddleware();

            //Expand other branch pipes
            if (pipelineConfiguration.MapWhenOcelotPipeline != null)
            {
                foreach (var pipeline in pipelineConfiguration.MapWhenOcelotPipeline)
                {
                    builder.MapWhen(pipeline);
                }
            }

            // Now we have the ds route we can transform headers and stuff?
            builder.UseHttpHeadersTransformationMiddleware();

            // Initialises downstream request
            builder.UseDownstreamRequestInitialiser();

            // We check whether the request is ratelimit, and if there is no continue processing
            builder.UseRateLimiting();

            // This adds or updates the request id (initally we try and set this based on global config in the error handling middleware)
            // If anything was set at global level and we have a different setting at re route level the global stuff will be overwritten
            // This means you can get a scenario where you have a different request id from the first piece of middleware to the request id middleware.
            builder.UseRequestIdMiddleware();

            // Allow pre authentication logic. The idea being people might want to run something custom before what is built in.
            builder.UseIfNotNull(pipelineConfiguration.PreAuthenticationMiddleware);

            // Now we know where the client is going to go we can authenticate them.
            // We allow the ocelot middleware to be overriden by whatever the
            // user wants
            if (pipelineConfiguration.AuthenticationMiddleware == null)
            {
                builder.UseAuthenticationMiddleware();
            }
            else
            {
                builder.Use(pipelineConfiguration.AuthenticationMiddleware);
            }

            // The next thing we do is look at any claims transforms in case this is important for authorisation
            builder.UseClaimsToClaimsMiddleware();

            // Allow pre authorisation logic. The idea being people might want to run something custom before what is built in.
            builder.UseIfNotNull(pipelineConfiguration.PreAuthorisationMiddleware);

            // Now we have authenticated and done any claims transformation we 
            // can authorise the request
            // We allow the ocelot middleware to be overriden by whatever the
            // user wants
            if (pipelineConfiguration.AuthorisationMiddleware == null)
            {//使用自定义认证,移除默认的认证方式
                //builder.UseAuthorisationMiddleware();
            }
            else
            {
                builder.Use(pipelineConfiguration.AuthorisationMiddleware);
            }

            // Now we can run the claims to headers transformation middleware
            builder.UseClaimsToHeadersMiddleware();

            // Allow the user to implement their own query string manipulation logic
            builder.UseIfNotNull(pipelineConfiguration.PreQueryStringBuilderMiddleware);

            // Now we can run any claims to query string transformation middleware
            builder.UseClaimsToQueryStringMiddleware();

            // Get the load balancer for this request
            builder.UseLoadBalancingMiddleware();

            // This takes the downstream route we retrieved earlier and replaces any placeholders with the variables that should be used
            builder.UseDownstreamUrlCreatorMiddleware();

            // Not sure if this is the best place for this but we use the downstream url 
            // as the basis for our cache key.
            builder.UseOutputCacheMiddleware();

            //We fire off the request and set the response on the scoped data repo
            builder.UseHttpRequesterMiddleware();

            return builder.Build();
        }
    private static void UseIfNotNull(this IOcelotPipelineBuilder builder,
            Func<DownstreamContext, Func<Task>, Task> middleware)
        {
            if (middleware != null)
            {
                builder.Use(middleware);
            }
        }
    }

限流中间件实现解析

实现代码如下builder.UseRateLimiting();,我们转到定义,得到如下代码,详细的实现逻辑在ClientRateLimitMiddleware方法里,继续转定义到这个方法,我把方法里用到的内容注释了下。

public static class RateLimitMiddlewareExtensions
{
    public static IOcelotPipelineBuilder UseRateLimiting(this IOcelotPipelineBuilder builder)
    {
        return builder.UseMiddleware<ClientRateLimitMiddleware>();
    }
}

public class ClientRateLimitMiddleware : OcelotMiddleware
{
        private readonly OcelotRequestDelegate _next;
        private readonly IRateLimitCounterHandler _counterHandler;
        private readonly ClientRateLimitProcessor _processor;

        public ClientRateLimitMiddleware(OcelotRequestDelegate next,
            IOcelotLoggerFactory loggerFactory,
            IRateLimitCounterHandler counterHandler)
                :base(loggerFactory.CreateLogger<ClientRateLimitMiddleware>())
        {
            _next = next;
            _counterHandler = counterHandler;
            _processor = new ClientRateLimitProcessor(counterHandler);
        }
        //熟悉的Tnvoke方法,所有的逻辑都在此方法里。
        public async Task Invoke(DownstreamContext context)
        {
            var options = context.DownstreamReRoute.RateLimitOptions;

            // 校验是否启用限流配置
            if (!context.DownstreamReRoute.EnableEndpointEndpointRateLimiting)
            {//未启用直接进入下一个中间件
                Logger.LogInformation($"EndpointRateLimiting is not enabled for {context.DownstreamReRoute.DownstreamPathTemplate.Value}");
                await _next.Invoke(context);
                return;
            }

            // 获取配置的校验客户端的方式
            var identity = SetIdentity(context.HttpContext, options);

            // 校验是否为白名单
            if (IsWhitelisted(identity, options))
            {//白名单直接放行
                Logger.LogInformation($"{context.DownstreamReRoute.DownstreamPathTemplate.Value} is white listed from rate limiting");
                await _next.Invoke(context);
                return;
            }

            var rule = options.RateLimitRule;
            if (rule.Limit > 0)
            {//限流数是否大于0
                // 获取当前客户端请求情况,这里需要注意_processor是从哪里注入的,后续重
                var counter = _processor.ProcessRequest(identity, options);

                // 校验请求数是否大于限流数
                if (counter.TotalRequests > rule.Limit)
                {
                    //获取下次有效请求的时间,就是避免每次请求,都校验一次
                    var retryAfter = _processor.RetryAfterFrom(counter.Timestamp, rule);

                    // 写入日志
                    LogBlockedRequest(context.HttpContext, identity, counter, rule, context.DownstreamReRoute);

                    var retrystring = retryAfter.ToString(System.Globalization.CultureInfo.InvariantCulture);

                    // 抛出超出限流异常并把下次可请求时间写入header里。
                    await ReturnQuotaExceededResponse(context.HttpContext, options, retrystring);

                    return;
                }
            }

            //如果启用了限流头部
            if (!options.DisableRateLimitHeaders)
            {
                var headers = _processor.GetRateLimitHeaders(context.HttpContext, identity, options);
                context.HttpContext.Response.OnStarting(SetRateLimitHeaders, state: headers);
            }
            //进入下一个中间件
            await _next.Invoke(context);
        }

        public virtual ClientRequestIdentity SetIdentity(HttpContext httpContext, RateLimitOptions option)
        {
            var clientId = "client";
            if (httpContext.Request.Headers.Keys.Contains(option.ClientIdHeader))
            {
                clientId = httpContext.Request.Headers[option.ClientIdHeader].First();
            }

            return new ClientRequestIdentity(
                clientId,
                httpContext.Request.Path.ToString().ToLowerInvariant(),
                httpContext.Request.Method.ToLowerInvariant()
                );
        }

        public bool IsWhitelisted(ClientRequestIdentity requestIdentity, RateLimitOptions option)
        {
            if (option.ClientWhitelist.Contains(requestIdentity.ClientId))
            {
                return true;
            }

            return false;
        }

        public virtual void LogBlockedRequest(HttpContext httpContext, ClientRequestIdentity identity, RateLimitCounter counter, RateLimitRule rule, DownstreamReRoute downstreamReRoute)
        {
            Logger.LogInformation(
                $"Request {identity.HttpVerb}:{identity.Path} from ClientId {identity.ClientId} has been blocked, quota {rule.Limit}/{rule.Period} exceeded by {counter.TotalRequests}. Blocked by rule { downstreamReRoute.UpstreamPathTemplate.OriginalValue }, TraceIdentifier {httpContext.TraceIdentifier}.");
        }

        public virtual Task ReturnQuotaExceededResponse(HttpContext httpContext, RateLimitOptions option, string retryAfter)
        {
            var message = string.IsNullOrEmpty(option.QuotaExceededMessage) ? $"API calls quota exceeded! maximum admitted {option.RateLimitRule.Limit} per {option.RateLimitRule.Period}." : option.QuotaExceededMessage;

            if (!option.DisableRateLimitHeaders)
            {
                httpContext.Response.Headers["Retry-After"] = retryAfter;
            }

            httpContext.Response.StatusCode = option.HttpStatusCode;
            return httpContext.Response.WriteAsync(message);
        }

        private Task SetRateLimitHeaders(object rateLimitHeaders)
        {
            var headers = (RateLimitHeaders)rateLimitHeaders;

            headers.Context.Response.Headers["X-Rate-Limit-Limit"] = headers.Limit;
            headers.Context.Response.Headers["X-Rate-Limit-Remaining"] = headers.Remaining;
            headers.Context.Response.Headers["X-Rate-Limit-Reset"] = headers.Reset;

            return Task.CompletedTask;
        }
   }

通过源码解析,发现实现一个限流还是很简单的吗!再进一步解析,IRateLimitCounterHandler ClientRateLimitProcessor里的相关接口又是怎么实现的呢?这时候我们就需要了解下.NETCORE 的运行原理,其中ConfigureServices方法实现了依赖注入(DI)的配置。这时候我们看下Ocelot是在哪里进行注入的呢?

services.AddOcelot()是不是印象深刻呢?原来所有的注入信息都写在这里,那么问题简单了,Ctrl+F查找AddOcelot方法,马上就能定位到ServiceCollectionExtensions方法,然后再转到定义OcelotBuilder

public static class ServiceCollectionExtensions
{
    public static IOcelotBuilder AddOcelot(this IServiceCollection services)
    {
        var service = services.First(x => x.ServiceType == typeof(IConfiguration));
        var configuration = (IConfiguration)service.ImplementationInstance;
        return new OcelotBuilder(services, configuration);
    }

    public static IOcelotBuilder AddOcelot(this IServiceCollection services, IConfiguration configuration)
    {
        return new OcelotBuilder(services, configuration);
    }
}

又摸到大动脉啦,现在问题迎刃而解,原来所有的注入都写在这里,从这里可以找下我们熟悉的几个接口注入。

public OcelotBuilder(IServiceCollection services, IConfiguration configurationRoot)
{
    Configuration = configurationRoot;
    Services = services;
    Services.Configure<FileConfiguration>(configurationRoot);

    Services.TryAddSingleton<IOcelotCache<FileConfiguration>, InMemoryCache<FileConfiguration>>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IOcelotCache<CachedResponse>, InMemoryCache<CachedResponse>>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IHttpResponseHeaderReplacer, HttpResponseHeaderReplacer>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IHttpContextRequestHeaderReplacer, HttpContextRequestHeaderReplacer>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IHeaderFindAndReplaceCreator, HeaderFindAndReplaceCreator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IInternalConfigurationCreator, FileInternalConfigurationCreator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IInternalConfigurationRepository, InMemoryInternalConfigurationRepository>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IConfigurationValidator, FileConfigurationFluentValidator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<HostAndPortValidator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IReRoutesCreator, ReRoutesCreator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IAggregatesCreator, AggregatesCreator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IReRouteKeyCreator, ReRouteKeyCreator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IConfigurationCreator, ConfigurationCreator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IDynamicsCreator, DynamicsCreator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<ILoadBalancerOptionsCreator, LoadBalancerOptionsCreator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<ReRouteFluentValidator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<FileGlobalConfigurationFluentValidator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<FileQoSOptionsFluentValidator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IClaimsToThingCreator, ClaimsToThingCreator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IAuthenticationOptionsCreator, AuthenticationOptionsCreator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IUpstreamTemplatePatternCreator, UpstreamTemplatePatternCreator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IRequestIdKeyCreator, RequestIdKeyCreator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IServiceProviderConfigurationCreator,ServiceProviderConfigurationCreator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IQoSOptionsCreator, QoSOptionsCreator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IReRouteOptionsCreator, ReRouteOptionsCreator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IRateLimitOptionsCreator, RateLimitOptionsCreator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IBaseUrlFinder, BaseUrlFinder>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IRegionCreator, RegionCreator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IFileConfigurationRepository, DiskFileConfigurationRepository>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IFileConfigurationSetter, FileAndInternalConfigurationSetter>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IServiceDiscoveryProviderFactory, ServiceDiscoveryProviderFactory>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<ILoadBalancerFactory, LoadBalancerFactory>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<ILoadBalancerHouse, LoadBalancerHouse>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IOcelotLoggerFactory, AspDotNetLoggerFactory>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IRemoveOutputHeaders, RemoveOutputHeaders>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IClaimToThingConfigurationParser, ClaimToThingConfigurationParser>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IClaimsAuthoriser, ClaimsAuthoriser>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IScopesAuthoriser, ScopesAuthoriser>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IAddClaimsToRequest, AddClaimsToRequest>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IAddHeadersToRequest, AddHeadersToRequest>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IAddQueriesToRequest, AddQueriesToRequest>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IClaimsParser, ClaimsParser>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IUrlPathToUrlTemplateMatcher, RegExUrlMatcher>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IPlaceholderNameAndValueFinder, UrlPathPlaceholderNameAndValueFinder>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IDownstreamPathPlaceholderReplacer, DownstreamTemplatePathPlaceholderReplacer>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IDownstreamRouteProvider, DownstreamRouteFinder>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IDownstreamRouteProvider, DownstreamRouteCreator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IDownstreamRouteProviderFactory, DownstreamRouteProviderFactory>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IHttpRequester, HttpClientHttpRequester>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IHttpResponder, HttpContextResponder>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IErrorsToHttpStatusCodeMapper, ErrorsToHttpStatusCodeMapper>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IRateLimitCounterHandler, MemoryCacheRateLimitCounterHandler>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IHttpClientCache, MemoryHttpClientCache>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IRequestMapper, RequestMapper>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IHttpHandlerOptionsCreator, HttpHandlerOptionsCreator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IDownstreamAddressesCreator, DownstreamAddressesCreator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IDelegatingHandlerHandlerFactory, DelegatingHandlerHandlerFactory>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IHttpRequester, HttpClientHttpRequester>();

    // see this for why we register this as singleton http://stackoverflow.com/questions/37371264/invalidoperationexception-unable-to-resolve-service-for-type-microsoft-aspnetc
    // could maybe use a scoped data repository
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IHttpContextAccessor, HttpContextAccessor>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IRequestScopedDataRepository, HttpDataRepository>();
    Services.AddMemoryCache();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<OcelotDiagnosticListener>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IMultiplexer, Multiplexer>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IResponseAggregator, SimpleJsonResponseAggregator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<ITracingHandlerFactory, TracingHandlerFactory>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IFileConfigurationPollerOptions, InMemoryFileConfigurationPollerOptions>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IAddHeadersToResponse, AddHeadersToResponse>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IPlaceholders, Placeholders>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IResponseAggregatorFactory, InMemoryResponseAggregatorFactory>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IDefinedAggregatorProvider, ServiceLocatorDefinedAggregatorProvider>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IDownstreamRequestCreator, DownstreamRequestCreator>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IFrameworkDescription, FrameworkDescription>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IQoSFactory, QoSFactory>();
    Services.TryAddSingleton<IExceptionToErrorMapper, HttpExeptionToErrorMapper>();

    //add security 
    this.AddSecurity();

    //add asp.net services..
    var assembly = typeof(FileConfigurationController).GetTypeInfo().Assembly;

    Services.AddMvcCore()
        .AddApplicationPart(assembly)
        .AddControllersAsServices()
        .AddAuthorization()
        .AddJsonFormatters();

    Services.AddLogging();
    Services.AddMiddlewareAnalysis();
    Services.AddWebEncoders();
}

至此Ocelot源码解析就到这里了,其他的具体实现代码就根据流程一个一个查看即可,这里就不详细讲解了,因为我们已经掌握整个Ocelot代码的运行原理和实现方式及流程,项目里其他的一大堆的代码都是围绕这个流程去一步一步实现的。

有没有感觉添加一个中间件不是很复杂呢,是不是都跃跃欲试,准备尝试开发自己的自定义中间件啦,本篇就不介绍中间件的具体开发流程了,后续实战中会包含部分项目中需要用到的中间件,到时候会详细讲解如何规划和开发一个满足自己项目需求的中间件。

二、结合项目梳理功能

在完整学习完Ocelot文档和源码后,我们基本掌握了Ocelot目前已经实现的功能,再结合我们实际项目需求,我们梳理下还有哪些功能可能需要自己扩展实现。

项目设计网关基本需求包括路由、认证、授权、限流、缓存,仔细学习文档和源码后发现功能都已经存在,那是不是我们就可以直接拿来使用呢?这时候我们需要拿出一些复杂业务场景来对号入座,看能否实现复杂场景的一些应用。

1、授权

能否为每一个客户端设置独立的访问权限,如果客户端A可以访问服务A、服务B,客户端B只能访问服务A,从网关层面直接授权,不满足需求不路由到具体服务。从文档和代码分析后发现暂时未实现。

2、限流

能否为每一个客户端设置不能限流规则,例如客户端A为我们内容应用,我希望对服务A不启用限流,客户端B为第三方接入应用,我需要B访问服务A访问进行单独限流(30次/分钟),看能否通过配置实现自定义限流。从文档和代码分析后发现暂时未实现。

3、缓存

通过代码发现目前缓存实现的只是Dictionary方式实现的缓存,不能实现分布式结构的应用。

通过分析我们发现列举的5个基本需求,尽然有3个在我们实际项目应用中可能会存在问题,如果不解决这些问题,很难直接拿这个完美的网关项目应用到正式项目,所以我们到通过扩展Ocelot方法来实现我们的目的。

如何扩展呢

为了满足我们项目应用的需要,我们需要为每一个路由进行单独设置,如果还采用配置文件的方式,肯定无法满足需求,且后续网关动态增加路由、授权、限流等无法控制,所以我们需要把网关配置信息从配置文件中移到数据库中,由数据库中的路由表、限流表、授权表等方式记录当前网关的应用,且后续扩展直接在数据库中增加或减少相关配置,然后动态更新网关配置实现网关的高可用。

想一想是不是有点小激动,原来只要稍微改造下宝骏瞬间变宝马,那接下来的课程就是网关改造之旅,我会从设计、思想、编码等方面讲解下如何实现我们的第一辆宝马。

本系列文章我也是边想边写边实现,如果发现中间有任何描述或实现不当的地方,也请各位大神批评指正,我会第一时间整理并修正,避免让后续学习的人走弯路。