ASP.NET Core MVC 授权的扩展:自定义 Authorize Attribute 和 IApplicationModelProvide

一、概述

ASP.NET Core MVC 提供了基于角色( Role )、声明( Chaim ) 和策略 ( Policy ) 等的授权方式。在实际应用中,可能采用部门( Department , 本文采用用户组 Group )、职位 ( 可继续沿用 Role )、权限( Permission )的方式进行授权。要达到这个目的,仅仅通过自定义 IAuthorizationPolicyProvider 是不行的。本文通过自定义 IApplicationModelProvide 进行扩展。

二、PermissionAuthorizeAttribute : IPermissionAuthorizeData

AuthorizeAttribute 类实现了 IAuthorizeData 接口:

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namespace Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authorization
{
/// <summary>
/// Defines the set of data required to apply authorization rules to a resource.
/// </summary>
public interface IAuthorizeData
{
/// <summary>
/// Gets or sets the policy name that determines access to the resource.
/// </summary>
string Policy { get; set; }
/// <summary>
/// Gets or sets a comma delimited list of roles that are allowed to access the resource.
/// </summary>
string Roles { get; set; }
/// <summary>
/// Gets or sets a comma delimited list of schemes from which user information is constructed.
/// </summary>
string AuthenticationSchemes { get; set; }
}
}

使用 AuthorizeAttribute 不外乎如下几种形式:

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[Authorize]
[Authorize("SomePolicy")]
[Authorize(Roles = "角色1,角色2")]
[Authorize(AuthenticationSchemes = JwtBearerDefaults.AuthenticationScheme)]

当然,参数还可以组合起来。另外,Roles 和 AuthenticationSchemes 的值以半角逗号分隔,是 Or 的关系;多个 Authorize 是 And 的关系;Policy 、Roles 和 AuthenticationSchemes 如果同时使用,也是 And 的关系。

如果要扩展 AuthorizeAttribute,先扩展 IAuthorizeData 增加新的属性:

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public interface IPermissionAuthorizeData : IAuthorizeData
{
string Groups { get; set; }
string Permissions { get; set; }
}

然后定义 AuthorizeAttribute:

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[AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.Class | AttributeTargets.Method, AllowMultiple = true, Inherited = true)]
public class PermissionAuthorizeAttribute : Attribute, IPermissionAuthorizeData
{
public string Policy { get; set; }
public string Roles { get; set; }
public string AuthenticationSchemes { get; set; }
public string Groups { get; set; }
public string Permissions { get; set; }
}

现在,在 Controller 或 Action 上就可以这样使用了:

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[PermissionAuthorize(Roles = "经理,副经理")] // 经理或部门经理
[PermissionAuthorize(Groups = "研发部,生产部", Roles = "经理"] // 研发部经理或生成部经理。Groups 和 Roles 是 `And` 的关系。
[PermissionAuthorize(Groups = "研发部,生产部", Roles = "经理", Permissions = "请假审批"] // 研发部经理或生成部经理,并且有请假审批的权限。Groups 、Roles 和 Permission 是 `And` 的关系。

数据已经准备好,下一步就是怎么提取出来。通过扩展 AuthorizationApplicationModelProvider 来实现。

三、PermissionAuthorizationApplicationModelProvider : IApplicationModelProvider

AuthorizationApplicationModelProvider 类的作用是构造 AuthorizeFilter 对象放入 ControllerModel 或 ActionModel 的 Filters 属性中。具体过程是先提取 Controller 和 Action 实现了 IAuthorizeData 接口的 Attribute,如果使用的是默认的DefaultAuthorizationPolicyProvider,则会先创建一个 AuthorizationPolicy 对象作为 AuthorizeFilter 构造函数的参数。
创建 AuthorizationPolicy 对象是由 AuthorizationPolicy 的静态方法 public static async Task<AuthorizationPolicy> CombineAsync(IAuthorizationPolicyProvider policyProvider, IEnumerable<IAuthorizeData> authorizeData) 来完成的。该静态方法会解析 IAuthorizeData 的数据,但不懂解析 IPermissionAuthorizeData

因为 AuthorizationApplicationModelProvider 类对 AuthorizationPolicy.CombineAsync 静态方法有依赖,这里不得不做一个类似的 PermissionAuthorizationApplicationModelProvider 类,在本类实现 CombineAsync 方法。暂且不论该方法放在本类是否合适的问题。

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       public static AuthorizeFilter GetFilter(IAuthorizationPolicyProvider policyProvider, IEnumerable<IAuthorizeData> authData)
{
// The default policy provider will make the same policy for given input, so make it only once.
// This will always execute synchronously.
if (policyProvider.GetType() == typeof(DefaultAuthorizationPolicyProvider))
{
var policy = CombineAsync(policyProvider, authData).GetAwaiter().GetResult();
return new AuthorizeFilter(policy);
}
else
{
return new AuthorizeFilter(policyProvider, authData);
}
}
private static async Task<AuthorizationPolicy> CombineAsync(IAuthorizationPolicyProvider policyProvider, IEnumerable<IAuthorizeData> authorizeData)
{
if (policyProvider == null)
{
throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(policyProvider));
}
if (authorizeData == null)
{
throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(authorizeData));
}
var policyBuilder = new AuthorizationPolicyBuilder();
var any = false;
foreach (var authorizeDatum in authorizeData)
{
any = true;
var useDefaultPolicy = true;
if (!string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(authorizeDatum.Policy))
{
var policy = await policyProvider.GetPolicyAsync(authorizeDatum.Policy);
if (policy == null)
{
//throw new InvalidOperationException(Resources.FormatException_AuthorizationPolicyNotFound(authorizeDatum.Policy));
throw new InvalidOperationException(nameof(authorizeDatum.Policy));
}
policyBuilder.Combine(policy);
useDefaultPolicy = false;
}
var rolesSplit = authorizeDatum.Roles?.Split(',');
if (rolesSplit != null && rolesSplit.Any())
{
var trimmedRolesSplit = rolesSplit.Where(r => !string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(r)).Select(r => r.Trim());
policyBuilder.RequireRole(trimmedRolesSplit);
useDefaultPolicy = false;
}
if(authorizeDatum is IPermissionAuthorizeData permissionAuthorizeDatum )
{
var groupsSplit = permissionAuthorizeDatum.Groups?.Split(',');
if (groupsSplit != null && groupsSplit.Any())
{
var trimmedGroupsSplit = groupsSplit.Where(r => !string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(r)).Select(r => r.Trim());
policyBuilder.RequireClaim("Group", trimmedGroupsSplit); // TODO: 注意硬编码
useDefaultPolicy = false;
}
var permissionsSplit = permissionAuthorizeDatum.Permissions?.Split(',');
if (permissionsSplit != null && permissionsSplit.Any())
{
var trimmedPermissionsSplit = permissionsSplit.Where(r => !string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(r)).Select(r => r.Trim());
policyBuilder.RequireClaim("Permission", trimmedPermissionsSplit);// TODO: 注意硬编码
useDefaultPolicy = false;
}
}
var authTypesSplit = authorizeDatum.AuthenticationSchemes?.Split(',');
if (authTypesSplit != null && authTypesSplit.Any())
{
foreach (var authType in authTypesSplit)
{
if (!string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(authType))
{
policyBuilder.AuthenticationSchemes.Add(authType.Trim());
}
}
}
if (useDefaultPolicy)
{
policyBuilder.Combine(await policyProvider.GetDefaultPolicyAsync());
}
}
return any ? policyBuilder.Build() : null;
}

if(authorizeDatum is IPermissionAuthorizeData permissionAuthorizeDatum ) 为扩展部分。

四、Startup

注册 PermissionAuthorizationApplicationModelProvider 服务,需要在 AddMvc 之后替换掉 AuthorizationApplicationModelProvider 服务。

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services.AddMvc();
services.Replac(ServiceDescriptor.Transient<IApplicationModelProvider,PermissionAuthorizationApplicationModelProvider>());

五、Jwt 示例

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[Route("api/[controller]")]
[ApiController]
public class ValuesController : ControllerBase
{
private readonly JwtSecurityTokenHandler _tokenHandler = new JwtSecurityTokenHandler();
[HttpGet]
[Route("SignIn")]
public async Task<ActionResult<string>> SignIn()
{
var user = new ClaimsPrincipal(new ClaimsIdentity(new[]
{
// 备注:Claim Type: Group 和 Permission 这里使用的是硬编码,应该定义为类似于 ClaimTypes.Role 的常量;另外,下列模拟数据不一定合逻辑。
new Claim(ClaimTypes.Name, "Bob"),
new Claim(ClaimTypes.Role, "经理"), // 注意:不能使用逗号分隔来达到多个角色的目的,下同。
new Claim(ClaimTypes.Role, "副经理"),
new Claim("Group", "研发部"),
new Claim("Group", "生产部"),
new Claim("Permission", "请假审批"),
new Claim("Permission", "权限1"),
new Claim("Permission", "权限2"),
}, JwtBearerDefaults.AuthenticationScheme));
var token = new JwtSecurityToken(
"SignalRAuthenticationSample",
"SignalRAuthenticationSample",
user.Claims,
expires: DateTime.UtcNow.AddDays(30),
signingCredentials: SignatureHelper.GenerateSigningCredentials("1234567890123456"));
return _tokenHandler.WriteToken(token);
}
[HttpGet]
[Route("Test")]
[PermissionAuthorize(Groups = "研发部,生产部", Roles = "经理", Permissions = "请假审批"] // 研发部经理或生成部经理,并且有请假审批的权限。Groups 、Roles 和 Permission 是 `And` 的关系。
public async Task<ActionResult<IEnumerable<string>>> Test()
{
var user = HttpContext.User;
return new string[] { "value1", "value2" };
}
}

六、问题

AuthorizeFilter 类显示实现了 IFilterFactory 接口的 CreateInstance 方法:

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IFilterMetadata IFilterFactory.CreateInstance(IServiceProvider serviceProvider)
{
if (Policy != null || PolicyProvider != null)
{
// The filter is fully constructed. Use the current instance to authorize.
return this;
}

Debug.Assert(AuthorizeData != null);
var policyProvider = serviceProvider.GetRequiredService<IAuthorizationPolicyProvider>();
return AuthorizationApplicationModelProvider.GetFilter(policyProvider, AuthorizeData);
}

竟然对 AuthorizationApplicationModelProvider.GetFilter 静态方法产生了依赖。庆幸的是,如果通过 AuthorizeFilter(IAuthorizationPolicyProvider policyProvider, IEnumerable<IAuthorizeData> authorizeData) 或 AuthorizeFilter(AuthorizationPolicy policy) 创建 AuthorizeFilter 对象不会产生什么不良影响。

七、下一步

[PermissionAuthorize(Groups = "研发部,生产部", Roles = "经理", Permissions = "请假审批"] 这种形式还是不够灵活,哪怕用多个 Attribute, And 和 Or 的逻辑组合不一定能满足需求。可以在 IPermissionAuthorizeData 新增一个 Rule 属性,实现类似的效果:

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[PermissionAuthorize(Rule = "(Groups:研发部,生产部)&&(Roles:请假审批||Permissions:超级权限)"]

通过 Rule 计算复杂的授权。

八、如果通过自定义 IAuthorizationPolicyProvider 实现?

另一种方式是自定义 IAuthorizationPolicyProvider ,不过还需要自定义 AuthorizeFilter。因为当不是使用 DefaultAuthorizationPolicyProvider 而是自定义 IAuthorizationPolicyProvider 时,AuthorizationApplicationModelProvider(或前文定义的 PermissionAuthorizationApplicationModelProvider)会使用 AuthorizeFilter(IAuthorizationPolicyProvider policyProvider, IEnumerable<IAuthorizeData> authorizeData) 创建 AuthorizeFilter 对象,而不是 AuthorizeFilter(AuthorizationPolicy policy)。这会造成 AuthorizeFilter 对象在 OnAuthorizationAsync 时会间接调用 AuthorizationPolicy.CombineAsync 静态方法。

这可以说是一个设计上的缺陷,不应该让 AuthorizationPolicy.CombineAsync 静态方法存在,哪怕提供个 IAuthorizationPolicyCombiner 也好。另外,上文提到的 AuthorizationApplicationModelProvider.GetFilter 静态方法同样不是一种好的设计。等微软想通吧。

参考资料

https://docs.microsoft.com/zh-cn/aspnet/core/security/authorization/iauthorizationpolicyprovider?view=aspnetcore-2.1

 

排版问题:http://blog.tubumu.com/2018/11/28/aspnetcore-mvc-extend-authorization/