kubernetes系列09—Ingress控制器详解

本文收录在容器技术学习系列文章总目录

1、认识Ingress

1.1 什么是Ingress

  通常情况下,servicepod仅可在集群内部网络中通过IP地址访问。所有到达边界路由器的流量或被丢弃或被转发到其他地方。从概念上讲,可能像下面这样:

    internet
        |
  ------------
  [ Services ]

Ingress是授权入站连接到达集群服务的规则集合。

    internet
        |
   [ Ingress ]
   --|-----|--
   [ Services ]

  你可以给Ingress配置提供外部可访问的URL、负载均衡、SSL、基于名称的虚拟主机等。用户通过POST Ingress资源到API server的方式来请求ingress Ingress controller负责实现Ingress,通常使用负载平衡器,它还可以配置边界路由和其他前端,这有助于以HA方式处理流量。

 

1.2 Ingress工作示意图

 

1.3先决条件

  在使用Ingress resource之前,有必要先了解下面几件事情。Ingressbeta版本的resource,在kubernetes1.1之前还没有。你需要一个Ingress Controller来实现Ingress,单纯的创建一个Ingress没有任何意义。

  GCE/GKE会在master节点上部署一个ingress controller。你可以在一个pod中部署任意个自定义的ingress controller。你必须正确地annotate每个ingress,比如 运行多个ingress controller  关闭glbc.

  确定你已经阅读了Ingress controllerbeta版本限制。在非GCE/GKE的环境中,你需要在pod部署一个controller

 

1.4 Ingress定义资源清单几个字段

  •  apiVersionv1  版本
  •  kindIngress  类型
  •  metadata  元数据
  •  spec  期望状态
    •  backend: 默认后端,能够处理与任何规则不匹配的请求
    •  rules:用于配置Ingress的主机规则列表
    •  tls:目前Ingress仅支持单个TLS端口443
  •  status  当前状态

 

2、部署一个Ingress

1)在gitlab上下载yaml文件,并创建部署

gitlab ingress-nginx项目:https://github.com/kubernetes/ingress-nginx

ingress安装指南:https://kubernetes.github.io/ingress-nginx/deploy/

因为需要拉取镜像,所以需要等一段时间

---下载需要的yaml文件
[root@master ingress-nginx]# wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/ingress-nginx/master/deploy/mandatory.yaml
---查询下载成功
[root@master ingress-nginx]# ls
mandatory.yaml
---创建ingress
[root@master ingress-nginx]# kubectl apply -f mandatory.yaml 
namespace/ingress-nginx created
configmap/nginx-configuration created
configmap/tcp-services created
configmap/udp-services created
serviceaccount/nginx-ingress-serviceaccount created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/nginx-ingress-clusterrole created
role.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/nginx-ingress-role created
rolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/nginx-ingress-role-nisa-binding created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/nginx-ingress-clusterrole-nisa-binding created
deployment.apps/nginx-ingress-controller created

  

2)如果是裸机,还需要安装service

[root@master ingress-nginx]# wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/ingress-nginx/master/deploy/provider/baremetal/service-nodeport.yaml
[root@master ingress-nginx]# kubectl apply -f service-nodeport.yaml 
service/ingress-nginx created

  

3)验证

---查询生产的pod
[root@master ~]# kubectl get pods -n ingress-nginx
NAME                                        READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
nginx-ingress-controller-648c7bb65b-df9qz   1/1       Running   0          34m
---查询生产的svc
[root@master ingress-nginx]# kubectl get svc -n ingress-nginx
NAME            TYPE       CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)                      AGE
ingress-nginx   NodePort   10.109.244.123   <none>        80:30080/TCP,443:30443/TCP   21s
---查询svc的详细信息
[root@master ~]# kubectl describe svc ingress-nginx -n ingress-nginx
Name:                     ingress-nginx
Namespace:                ingress-nginx
Labels:                   app.kubernetes.io/name=ingress-nginx
                          app.kubernetes.io/part-of=ingress-nginx
Annotations:              kubectl.kubernetes.io/last-applied-configuration={"apiVersion":"v1","kind":"Service","metadata":{"annotations":{},"labels":{"app.kubernetes.io/name":"ingress-nginx","app.kubernetes.io/part-of":"ingres...
Selector:                 app.kubernetes.io/name=ingress-nginx,app.kubernetes.io/part-of=ingress-nginx
Type:                     NodePort
IP:                       10.111.143.90
Port:                     http  80/TCP
TargetPort:               80/TCP
NodePort:                 http  30080/TCP
Endpoints:                10.244.1.104:80
Port:                     https  443/TCP
TargetPort:               443/TCP
NodePort:                 https  30443/TCP
Endpoints:                10.244.1.104:443
Session Affinity:         None
External Traffic Policy:  Cluster
Events:                   <none>

  

3、创建Ingress,代理到后端nginx服务

3.1 准备后端podservice

1)编写yaml文件,并创建

创建3nginx服务的pod,并创建一个service绑定

[root@master ingress]# vim deploy-damo.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: myapp
  namespace: default
spec:
  selector:
    app: myapp
    release: canary
  ports:
  - name: http
    targetPort: 80
    port: 80
---
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: myapp-deploy
  namespace: default
spec:
  replicas: 3
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: myapp
      release: canary
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: myapp
        release: canary
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: myapp
        image: ikubernetes/myapp:v2
        ports:
        - name: http
          containerPort: 80
[root@master ingress]# kubectl apply -f deploy-damo.yaml 
service/myapp created
deployment.apps/myapp-deploy created

  

2)查询验证

[root@master ~]# kubectl get svc
NAME         TYPE        CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)   AGE
kubernetes   ClusterIP   10.96.0.1        <none>        443/TCP   146d
myapp        ClusterIP   10.103.137.126   <none>        80/TCP    6s
[root@master ~]# kubectl get pods
NAME                            READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
myapp-deploy-67f6f6b4dc-2vzjn   1/1       Running   0          14s
myapp-deploy-67f6f6b4dc-c7f76   1/1       Running   0          14s
myapp-deploy-67f6f6b4dc-x79hc   1/1       Running   0          14s
[root@master ~]# kubectl describe svc myapp
Name:              myapp
Namespace:         default
Labels:            <none>
Annotations:       kubectl.kubernetes.io/last-applied-configuration={"apiVersion":"v1","kind":"Service","metadata":{"annotations":{},"name":"myapp","namespace":"default"},"spec":{"ports":[{"name":"http","port":80,"targe...
Selector:          app=myapp,release=canary
Type:              ClusterIP
IP:                10.103.137.126
Port:              http  80/TCP
TargetPort:        80/TCP
Endpoints:         10.244.1.102:80,10.244.1.103:80,10.244.2.109:80
Session Affinity:  None
Events:            <none>

  

3.2 创建ingress,绑定后端nginx服务

1)编写yaml文件,并创建

[root@master ingress]# vim ingress-myapp.yaml
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  name: ingress-myapp
  namespace: default
spec:
  rules:
  - host: myapp.along.com
    http:
      paths:
      - path:
        backend:
          serviceName: myapp
          servicePort: 80
[root@master ingress]# kubectl apply -f ingress-myapp.yaml
ingress.extensions/ingress-myapp created

  

2)查询验证

[root@master ~]# kubectl get ingress
NAME            HOSTS             ADDRESS   PORTS     AGE
ingress-myapp   myapp.along.com             80        140d
[root@master ~]# kubectl describe ingress ingress-myapp
Name:             ingress-myapp
Namespace:        default
Address:          
Default backend:  default-http-backend:80 (<none>)
Rules:
  Host             Path  Backends
  ----             ----  --------
  myapp.along.com  
                      myapp:80 (<none>)
Annotations:
  kubectl.kubernetes.io/last-applied-configuration:  {"apiVersion":"extensions/v1beta1","kind":"Ingress","metadata":{"annotations":{},"name":"ingress-myapp","namespace":"default"},"spec":{"rules":[{"host":"myapp.along.com","http":{"paths":[{"backend":{"serviceName":"myapp","servicePort":80},"path":null}]}}]}}

Events:
  Type    Reason  Age   From                      Message
  ----    ------  ----  ----                      -------
  Normal  CREATE  37s   nginx-ingress-controller  Ingress default/ingress-myapp

  

3)在集群外,查询服务验证

可以先修改一下主机的hosts,因为不是公网域名

192.168.130.103 myapp.along.com

访问业务成功

 

4、创建Ingress,代理到后端tomcat服务

4.1 准备后端podservice

1)编写yaml文件,并创建

创建3tomcat服务的pod,并创建一个service绑定

[root@master ingress]# vim tomcat-deploy.yaml 
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: tomcat
  namespace: default
spec:
  selector:
    app: tomcat
    release: canary
  ports:
  - name: http
    targetPort: 8080
    port: 8080
  - name: ajp
    targetPort: 8009
    port: 8009
---
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: tomcat-deploy
  namespace: default
spec:
  replicas: 3
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: tomcat
      release: canary
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: tomcat
        release: canary
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: tomcat
        image: tomcat:8.5.37-jre8-alpine
        ports:
        - name: http
          containerPort: 8080
        - name: ajp
          containerPort: 8009
[root@master ingress]# kubectl apply -f tomcat-deploy.yaml 
service/tomcat created
deployment.apps/tomcat-deploy created

  

2)查询验证

[root@master ~]# kubectl get pods
NAME                            READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
tomcat-deploy-97d6458c5-hrmrw   1/1       Running   0          1m
tomcat-deploy-97d6458c5-ngxxx   1/1       Running   0          1m
tomcat-deploy-97d6458c5-xchgn   1/1       Running   0          1m
[root@master ~]# kubectl get svc
NAME         TYPE        CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)             AGE
kubernetes   ClusterIP   10.96.0.1        <none>        443/TCP             146d
tomcat       ClusterIP   10.98.193.252    <none>        8080/TCP,8009/TCP   1m

  

4.2 创建ingress,绑定后端tomcat服务

1)编写yaml文件,并创建

[root@master ingress]# vim ingress-tomcat.yaml 
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  name: ingress-tomcat
  namespace: default
spec:
  rules:
  - host: tomcat.along.com
    http:
      paths:
      - path:
        backend:
          serviceName: tomcat
          servicePort: 8080
[root@master ingress]# kubectl apply -f ingress-tomcat.yaml 
ingress.extensions/ingress-tomcat created

 

2)查询验证

[root@master ~]# kubectl get ingress
NAME             HOSTS              ADDRESS   PORTS     AGE
ingress-myapp    myapp.along.com              80        17m
ingress-tomcat   tomcat.along.com             80        6s
[root@master ~]# kubectl describe ingress ingress-tomcat
Name:             ingress-tomcat
Namespace:        default
Address:          
Default backend:  default-http-backend:80 (<none>)
Rules:
  Host              Path  Backends
  ----              ----  --------
  tomcat.along.com  
                       tomcat:8080 (<none>)
Annotations:
  kubectl.kubernetes.io/last-applied-configuration:  {"apiVersion":"extensions/v1beta1","kind":"Ingress","metadata":{"annotations":{},"name":"ingress-tomcat","namespace":"default"},"spec":{"rules":[{"host":"tomcat.along.com","http":{"paths":[{"backend":{"serviceName":"tomcat","servicePort":8080},"path":null}]}}]}}

Events:
  Type    Reason  Age   From                      Message
  ----    ------  ----  ----                      -------
  Normal  CREATE  17s   nginx-ingress-controller  Ingress default/ingress-tomcat

  

3)在集群外,查询服务验证

可以先修改一下主机的hosts,因为不是公网域名

192.168.130.103 tomcat.along.com

访问业务成功

 

4.3 使用https协议访问服务

4.3.1 创建证书、私钥和secret

1)创建私钥

[root@master ingress]# openssl genrsa -out tls.key 2048
Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus
.............................................+++
...............+++
e is 65537 (0x10001)
[root@master ingress]# ls *key
tls.key

  

2)创建证书

[root@master ingress]# openssl req -new -x509 -key tls.key -out tls.crt -subj /C=CN/ST=Beijing/L=Beijing/O=DevOps/CN=tomcat.along.com
[root@master ingress]# ls tls.*
tls.crt  tls.key

  

3)创建secret

[root@master ingress]# kubectl create secret tls tomcat-ingress-secret --cert=tls.crt --key=tls.key
secret/tomcat-ingress-secret created
[root@master ingress]# kubectl get secret
NAME                              TYPE                                  DATA      AGE
tomcat-ingress-secret             kubernetes.io/tls                     2         8s
[root@master ingress]# kubectl describe secret tomcat-ingress-secret
Name:         tomcat-ingress-secret
Namespace:    default
Labels:       <none>
Annotations:  <none>

Type:  kubernetes.io/tls

Data
====
tls.key:  1675 bytes
tls.crt:  1294 bytes

  

4.3.2 重新创建ingress,使用https协议绑定后端tomcat服务

1)编写yaml文件,并创建

[root@master ingress]# vim ingress-tomcat-tls.yaml
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  name: ingress-tomcat-tls
  namespace: default
spec:
  tls:
  - hosts:
    - tomcat.along.com
    secretName: tomcat-ingress-secret
  rules:
  - host: tomcat.along.com
    http:
      paths:
      - path:
        backend:
          serviceName: tomcat
          servicePort: 8080

  

2)查询验证

[root@master ~]# kubectl get ingress
NAME                 HOSTS              ADDRESS   PORTS     AGE
ingress-myapp        myapp.along.com              80        34m
ingress-tomcat       tomcat.along.com             80        16m
ingress-tomcat-tls   tomcat.along.com             80, 443   8s
[root@master ~]# kubectl describe ingress ingress-tomcat-tls
Name:             ingress-tomcat-tls
Namespace:        default
Address:          
Default backend:  default-http-backend:80 (<none>)
TLS:
  tomcat-ingress-secret terminates tomcat.along.com
Rules:
  Host              Path  Backends
  ----              ----  --------
  tomcat.along.com  
                       tomcat:8080 (<none>)
Annotations:
  kubectl.kubernetes.io/last-applied-configuration:  {"apiVersion":"extensions/v1beta1","kind":"Ingress","metadata":{"annotations":{},"name":"ingress-tomcat-tls","namespace":"default"},"spec":{"rules":[{"host":"tomcat.along.com","http":{"paths":[{"backend":{"serviceName":"tomcat","servicePort":8080},"path":null}]}}],"tls":[{"hosts":["tomcat.along.com"],"secretName":"tomcat-ingress-secret"}]}}

Events:
  Type    Reason  Age   From                      Message
  ----    ------  ----  ----                      -------
  Normal  CREATE  14s   nginx-ingress-controller  Ingress default/ingress-tomcat-tls

  

3)在集群外,查询服务验证

使用https协议,访问业务成功