004.MySQL双主+Keepalived高可用

 

一 基础环境

主机名
系统版本
MySQL版本
主机IP
Master01
CentOS 6.8
MySQL 5.6
172.24.8.10
Master02
CentOS 6.8
MySQL 5.6
172.24.8.11
VIP
172.24.8.12

二 实际部署

2.1 安装MySQL

  1 [root@Master01 ~]# yum list installed | grep mysql	#查看是否存在其他MySQL组件
  2 [root@Master01 ~]# yum -y remove mysql-libs.x86_64	#为避免冲突引发报错,卸载已存在的组件
 
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  1 [root@Master01 study]#  yum localinstall mysql-commu* -y
  2 [root@Master01 ~]# chkconfig --list | grep mysqld		#查看MySQL是否加入启动项
  3 [root@Master01 ~]# chkconfig mysqld on
 

2.2 初始化MySQL

  1 [root@Master01 ~]# service mysqld start
  2 [root@Master01 ~]# mysql_secure_installation
  3 [root@Master01 ~]# service iptables stop
  4 [root@Master01 ~]# chkconfig iptables off
  5 [root@Master01 ~]# vi /etc/sysconfig/selinux
  6 SELINUX=disabled
 
注意:以上操作在Master02主机上也需要执行。
安装参考:http://www.cnblogs.com/007sx/p/7083143.html

2.3 master01 my.cf配置

  1 [root@Master01 ~]# vi /etc/my.cnf
  2 [mysqld]
  3 ……
  4 server-id=1				#设置主服务器master的id
  5 log-bin=mysql-bin			#配置二进制变更日志命名格式
  6 replicate-wild-ignore-table=mysql.%
  7 replicate-wild-ignore-table=test.%
  8 replicate-wild-ignore-table=information_schema.%
 
注意:
master开启二进制日志后默认记录所有库所有表的操作,可以通过配置来指定只记录指定的数据库甚至指定的表的操作,具体在mysql配置文件的[mysqld]可添加修改如下选项:
方法一:
  1 # 不同步哪些数据库
  2 binlog-ignore-db = mysql
  3 binlog-ignore-db = test
  4 binlog-ignore-db = information_schema
  5 # 只同步哪些数据库,除此之外,其他不同步
  6 binlog-do-db = mysqltest
 
方法二:
建议采用以下方式配置过滤:
  1 replicate-wild-ignore-table=mysql.%	#从库配置不同步表
  2 replicate-wild-do-table=test.%		#从库配置需要同步的表
 

提示:不要在主库使用binlog-ignore-db和binlog-do-db,也不要在从库使用replicate-wild-ignore和replicate-wild-do-table。

2.4 创建账号

  1 [root@Master01 ~]# mysql -uroot -p
  2 Enter password:
  3 mysql> grant replication slave on *.* to 'repl_user'@'172.24.8.11' identified by 'x12345678';
  4 mysql> grant all privileges on *.* to 'root'@'172.24.8.%'  identified by 'x120952576' with grant option;
  5 mysql> flush privileges;
  6 [root@Master01 ~]# service mysqld restart
  7 [root@Master01 ~]# mysql -uroot -p
  8 Enter password:
  9 mysql> show master status;
 
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master01:
file:mysql-bin.000001
position:120

2.5 smaster02 my.cf配置配置

  1 [root@Master02 ~]# vi /etc/my.cnf
  2 [mysqld]
  3 server-id=2				#设置主服务器master的id
  4 log-bin=mysql-bin			#配置二进制变更日志命名格式
  5 replicate-wild-ignore-table=mysql.%
  6 replicate-wild-ignore-table=test.%
  7 replicate-wild-ignore-table=information_schema.%
  8 read_only=1
 

2.6 创建账号

  1 [root@Master02 ~]# mysql -uroot -p
  2 Enter password:
  3 mysql> grant replication slave on *.* to 'repl_user'@'172.24.8.10' identified by 'x12345678';
  4 mysql> grant all privileges on *.* to 'root'@'172.24.8.%'  identified by 'x120952576' with grant option;
  5 mysql> flush privileges;
  6 [root@Master02 ~]# service mysqld restart
  7 [root@Master02 ~]# mysql -uroot -p
  8 Enter password:
  9 mysql> show master status;
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master02:

file:mysql-bin.000001
position:120

三 启动主从

3.1 手动同步

如果Master01和Master02已经存在数据,则在开启主备复制之前,需要将Master01和Master02手动同步一次(/var/lib/mysql整个目录打包tar.gz),具体方法略。
注意:本实验都是重新安装的MySQL,可直接启动同步。

3.2 启动Master01的slave功能

  1 [root@Master01 ~]# service mysqld restart
  2 [root@Master01 ~]# mysql -uroot -p
  3 Enter password:
  4 mysql> change master to master_host='172.24.8.11',
  5 master_user='repl_user',
  6 master_password='x12345678',
  7 master_log_file='mysql-bin.000001',
  8 master_port=3306,
  9 master_log_pos=120;
 10 mysql> start slave;
 11 mysql> show slave status\G			#查看slave状态
 
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3.3 启动Master02的slave功能

  1 [root@Master02 ~]# service mysqld restart
  2 [root@Master02 ~]# mysql -uroot -p
  3 Enter password:
  4 mysql> change master to master_host='172.24.8.10',
  5 master_user='repl_user',
  6 master_password='x12345678',
  7 master_log_file='mysql-bin.000001',
  8 master_log_pos=120;
  9 mysql> start slave;
 10 mysql> show slave status\G			#查看slave状态
 
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提示:
slave的I/O和SQL线程都已经开始运行,而且Seconds_Behind_Master不再是NULL。日志的位置增加了,意味着一些事件被获取并执行了。如果你在master上进行修改,你可以在slave上看到各种日志文件的位置的变化,同样,你也可以看到数据库中数据的变化。

四 安装Keepalived

4.1 下载

  1 [root@Master01 ~]# wget http://www.keepalived.org/software/keepalived-1.3.6.tar.gz
  2 [root@Master01 ~]# tar -zvxf keepalived-1.3.6.tar.gz -C /tmp/
  3 [root@Master01 ~]# cd /tmp/keepalived-1.3.6
  4 [root@Master01 keepalived-1.3.6]# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/keepalived/ --sysconf=/etc --with-init=SYSV
  5 #注:(upstart|systemd|SYSV|SUSE|openrc) #根据你的系统选择对应的启动方式
  6 [root@Master01 keepalived-1.3.6]# make && make install
  7 [root@Master01 ~]# ln -s /usr/local/keepalived/sbin/keepalived /sbin
  8 [root@Master01 ~]# chmod u+x /etc/init.d/keepalived
  9 [root@Master01 ~]# chkconfig --add keepalived
 10 [root@Master01 ~]# chkconfig --level 35 keepalived on
 
注意:Master02上也需要如上操作。
若出现以下提示,需要执行:yum -y install openssl-devel。
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提示:也可采用yum install -y keepalived安装(个人不建议)。

4.2 Master01配置Keepalived

默认情况下keepalived启动时会去/etc/keepalived目录下找配置文件。
  1 [root@Master01 ~]# vim /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf
  2 ! Configuration File for keepalived
  3 global_defs {
  4    notification_email {
  5     x120952576@126.com
  6 #表示keepalived在发生诸如切换操作时发送Email给哪些地址,邮件地址可以多个,每行一个。
  7    }
  8    notification_email_from Alexandre.Cassen@firewall.loc
  9    smtp_server 172.24.8.10
 10    smtp_connect_timeout 30
 11    router_id LVS_DEVEL
 12 }
 13 vrrp_instance VI_1 {
 14     state BACKUP
 15     interface eth0
 16     virtual_router_id 51
 17 #这里设置VRID,这里非常重要,相同的VRID为一个组,他将决定多播的MAC地址
 18     priority 100
 19     advert_int 1
 20     nopreempt
 21 #不抢占,只在优先级高的机器上设置即可,优先级低的机器不设置
 22     authentication {
 23         auth_type PASS
 24         auth_pass 1111
 25     }
 26 track_script {
 27     check_mysqld		#执行定义的监控脚本
 28 }
 29     virtual_ipaddress {
 30         172.24.8.12
 31     }
 32 }
 33 vrrp_script check_mysqld {
 34     script"/etc/keepalived/mysqlcheck/keepalived_check_mysql.sh "
 35     interval 2
 36 }
 

4.3 创建检测脚本

  1 [root@Master01 ~]# mkdir -p /etc/keepalived/mysqlcheck/
  2 [root@Master01 ~]# vi /etc/keepalived/mysqlcheck/keepalived_check_mysql.sh
  3 #!/bin/bash
  4 MYSQL=/usr/bin/mysql
  5 MYSQL_HOST=localhost
  6 MYSQL_USER=root
  7 MYSQL_PASSWORD=x120952576
  8 CHECK_TIME=3
  9 #mysql  is workingMYSQL_OK is 1 , mysql down MYSQL_OK is 0
 10 MYSQL_OK=1
 11 function check_mysql_helth (){
 12 $MYSQL -h $MYSQL_HOST -u $MYSQL_USER -p${MYSQL_PASSWORD} -e "show status;" >/dev/null 2>&1
 13 if [ $? = 0 ] ;then
 14         MYSQL_OK=1
 15 else
 16         MYSQL_OK=0
 17 fi
 18 return $MYSQL_OK
 19 }
 20 while [ $CHECK_TIME -ne 0 ]
 21 do
 22         let "CHECK_TIME -= 1"
 23         check_mysql_helth
 24         if [ $MYSQL_OK = 1 ] ; then
 25                 CHECK_TIME=0
 26                 exit 0
 27         fi
 28         if [ $MYSQL_OK -eq 0 ] &&  [ $CHECK_TIME -eq 0 ]
 29         then
 30                 /etc/init.d/keepalived stop
 31                 exit 1
 32         fi
 33         sleep 1
 34 done
 35 [root@Master01 ~]# chmod u+x /etc/keepalived/mysqlcheck/keepalived_check_mysql.sh
 36 [root@Master01 ~]# service keepalived start
 

4.4 Master02配置Keepalived

  1 [root@Master01 ~]# scp /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf root@127.24.8.11:/etc/keepalived/
参考Master01配置,去掉nopreempt选项,priority设置比Master01低即可。

4.5 创建检测脚本

  1 [root@Master02 ~]# mkdir -p /etc/keepalived/mysqlcheck/
  2 [root@Master01 ~]# scp /etc/keepalived/mysqlcheck/keepalived_check_mysql.sh root@172.24.8.11:/etc/keepalived/mysqlcheck/
  3 [root@Master02 ~]# chmod u+x /etc/keepalived/mysqlcheck/keepalived_check_mysql.sh
  4 [root@Master02 ~]# service keepalived start
 

五 功能测试

5.1 测试vip

  1 [root@test ~]# mysql -uroot -h172.24.8.12 -p
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  1 mysql> show variables like "%hostname%";
  2 mysql> show variables like "%server_id%";
 
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5.2 同步测试

  1 [root@test ~]# mysql -uroot -p
  2 Enter password:
  3 mysql> create database mysqltest;
  4 mysql> use mysqltest;
  5 mysql> create table user(id int(5),name char(10));
  6 mysql> insert into user values (00001,'zhangsan');
  7 在Slave从服务器上进行验证:
  8 [root@Master02 ~]# mysql -uroot -p
  9 Enter password:
 10 mysql> show databases;
 11 mysql> select * from mysqltest.user;
 
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5.3 测试Keepalived切换

  1 [root@Master01 ~]# service mysqld stop				#停止Master01的MySQL
  2 [root@Master01 ~]# tail -f /var/log/messages			#观察Master01的日志
 
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  1 [root@Master02 ~]# tail -f /var/log/messages			#观察Master02的日志
35
  1 [root@Client ~]# mysql -uroot -h172.24.8.12 -px120952576	#客户端连接VIP
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注意:已经成功切换,在切换过程中可能中断几秒。